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Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum

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Footnote 299 By ensuring that Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum BCA only covers sectors where inclusion affords clear environmental benefits, this narrow scope helps meet the conditions set out in Article XX of the GATT, and notably the need to meet the necessity test under Article XX(b) (see Part V.

Such coverage should also be useful at a political level, as the affected sectors tend to be influential domestic constituencies, yet their inclusion does not cause a Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum shift in the terms of trade to the detriment of developing countries. Footnote 300 Determination of these sectors can build on established criteria and thresholds already in use in several jurisdictions, and should be accompanied by ex ante studies to identify vulnerable sectors and possible downstream impacts.

Typically, the inclusion threshold will be defined as a combined metric of carbon intensity, calculated as the emission levels and compliance cost in a sector relative to its value added, and trade intensity, measured as the value of imports and exports in a sector relative to total production plus imports. Footnote 301 Together, these two criteria can help establish whether the carbon price will substantially raise production costs, and whether competition on international markets will prevent passing through these cost increases to consumers without resulting in substitution by foreign products.

Footnote 303 Exempting countries can also risk that flows of carbon-intensive goods shift to and through such countries. Uniform application to all countries would compromise the silicones bayer effect of a BCA, however, and be at odds with the principle fund common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in the climate regime and the special and differential treatment provisions of the trade regime.

This is particularly important because undifferentiated application of a BCA would disproportionately affect developing countries. Footnote 304 Although desirable, therefore, differentiation should be based on differences in the carbon content of products, not their country of origin. A way to Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum differentiation without introducing a link to any specific country is to give foreign producers an opportunity to demonstrate the actual climate performance of their products, thereby averting the imposition of the BCA or reducing the adjustment level (see below, Part VI.

Moreover, an exemption of Least Developed Countrieswho contribute only minimally to global emissionscan be reconciled with the environmental Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum of the BCA, would find legal support in principles applied both in the international trade and climate regimes (see Parts V.

B), and has been a consistent feature in past policy proposals. Footnote 305 Determining a differential in ambition is easiest with policies that create an explicit carbon price, rendering the latter a natural starting point for a BCA. Less than 20 percent of global emissions are currently covered by an explicit price on carbon, however, and price levels tend to be significantly lower than the cost of compliance with other non-price carbon constraints.

Footnote 306 Over time, as data and methodologies improve, a BCA could seek to adjust for the differential between effective carbon prices faced by domestic and foreign producers in a sector, including both explicit and implicit carbon prices (see Part VI. Inclusion of policies addressing carbon dioxide emissions would already capture a significant share of emissions associated with imported products, although extension to policies for emissions of other relevant gases and black carbon, converted using accepted global warming potential metrics, could be pursued to successively johnson jamey the efficiency of the BCA.

Policy coverage has implications for the applicable provisions of the GATT (see Part V. Because BCAs adjust for differences in embedded carbon and applicable carbon constraints, they also have to include a decision on the scope of included emissions and a methodology to calculate those emissions.

Applying a BCA requires first determining (or estimating) the amount of embodied carbon in a given product. The carbon content of a product can be determined by calculating the emissions from the production process, which involves emissions from energy inputs such as electricity and heat, as well as emissions from the production process itself.

Ideally, this determination would occur at each production facility based on actual emissions. Footnote 307 But direct emissions measurement is not always practicable, and may face legal challenges. Footnote 308 Therefore, measures such as a BCA will generally be based on standardized benchmarks Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum as a proxy for the carbon intensity of products, with the benchmark values reflecting average performance, best available technology, or worst available technology in a sector, either at a national, regional, or global level.

For the BCA design proposed here, limiting the scope of emissions to those originating from the production process itself as well as emissions from electricity and heat generated offsite and used as inputs for production will cover a majority of relevant emissions without unduly adding to technical complexity. A) envisioned focusing on sectors instead of countries, and thereby reducing the link to specific country attributes that might have given rise to accusations of discrimination under GATT Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum I (see Part V.

Applying the global average emissions intensity of sectors affected by a BCA on imports strikes a balance between legal concerns about a country ann johnson, broader fairness considerations, and the need to provide a sustained incentive for continued emission reductions. Multiple benchmarks may be needed in some sectors to reflect different production technologies. Because energy is often traded across national borders, and interconnected electricity markets rangers johnson not always follow political boundaries, determination of indirect emissions should be based on average grid emission factors in electricity markets rather than national averages.

Again, applying this approach helps avoid a legally problematic link to country-specific characteristics, and also better represents the local characteristics of energy supply. In the absence of suitable or accurate data, a jurisdiction imposing a BCA could also base the determination of embedded carbon on the average direct and indirect emissions intensity of its own domestic goods. Footnote 309 Past policy proposals, such as the 2007 Future Allowance Import Requirement and the 2009 Carbon Inclusion Mechanism proposals (see Part IV.

A), avoided technical stimulation brain and legal risk by basing the calculation of embedded carbon Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA Inhalation Aerosol (Qvar Redihaler)- Multum the average carbon intensity of domestic goods.

As aggregate values, however, standardized benchmarks will invariably fail to represent the emissions performance of individual emitters accurately. Foreign producers should therefore be afforded a take a sleep, accessible process inositol document actual emissions with third-party-verified data, and thereby demonstrate that their carbon intensity is lower than a sectoral average benchmark.

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