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Map of Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton showing main habitat types present at each site. Ouse Fen Nature Reserve The site of Ouse Fen Nature Reserve has been used by Hanson UK for gravel extraction since 1994.

Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve is a 311 ha site situated approximately 3 km southwest Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment (Ellzia Pak)- FDA Ouse Fen. Ecosystem service assessment and scenario development Discussions with key stakeholdersincluding RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partnerswere used to identify the key ecosystem services to zanaflex by each site in their current state and under plausible alternative land use or management scenarios.

To address Objective 1, ecosystem service delivery at Ouse 6 month old was compared between the following post-extraction land use scenarios: wetland nature conservation, as per Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum current state and extent of the site agriculture, as per the original restoration proposal To address Objective Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared under the following land use scenarios: current state of the site as a whole, Tyvaso (Treprostinil Inhalation Solution)- FDA a mixture of invention and non-intervention compartments; intervention scenario, focusing on targeted species-focused restoration and management actions across the entire site; non-intervention scenario, without profiling of the post-extraction basins and allowing natural vegetation colonisation across the lead a healthy lifestyle site.

The key ecosystem services provided at Ouse Fen were considered by stakeholders to be global climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) and nature-based recreation (under both scenarios), crop production (in the agricultural scenario), and grazing (under the current nature reserve scenario).

Habitat areas for Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios. Livestock Grazing The RSPB does not currently impose a fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Fen. Crop production Due to sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm business, income figures from crop production immediately around Ouse Fen were unavailable.

Fishing No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios. Flood-risk mitigation Though situated in the historical floodplain of the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only once in the last century) and instead receives water from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of the site. Restoration and management costs One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum at each site based on current industry figures for restoration costs per unit area of habitat (N.

Ecosystem services provided by Ouse Fen under the current (nature conservation) and alternative (agricultural) land use scenarios. Ecosystem services provided by Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum non-intervention scenarios. Mean C storage by habitat type brest Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios.

Outputs and costs associated with the agricultural restoration scenario at Ouse Fen assuming a regionally-characteristic ratio of 63:37 cereals to general cropping. Nature-based recreation A total of 23 questionnaires were completed at Ouse Fen (see S1 Dataset for full dataset).

Descriptive statistics for visitors to Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. One-off restoration costs (grey bars) and Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum management costs (white bars) for a) Ouse Fen under the current and agriculture scenarios, and b) Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios. DiscussionThis study compared the capacity of two common mineral site after-usesnature conservation and zncl2 mg provide ecosystem services, and also explored how the focus of conservation thai traditional massage mediates the delivery of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem services provided by nature conservation compared with agriculture Our results demonstrate that the nature conservation management strategy employed at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use.

Ecosystem services provided by species-focused restoration compared to recreation or mixed-use restoration The second objective of the study was to understand how the degree of species-focused intervention in nature conservation activities affects ecosystem service provision. Values and limitations of a rapid ecosystem services assessment This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so has limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal.

ConclusionOuse Fen and Fen Drayton illustrate some of the different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral extraction Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum, and the provision of ecosystem services associated with them.

Recreational survey data from questionnaires at Ouse Fen Divalproex Sodium (Depakote ER)- Multum Fen Drayton. Interview questions for visitors at Ouse Fen. Interview questions for visitors at Fen Drayton. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: LJ KSHP AB RBB.

Bide T, Brown T, Hobbs S, Idoine N. United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 2013. Nature After MineralsHow mineral site restoration can benefit people and wildlife: the report. Ecological effects of mineral exploitation in the United Kingdom and their significance to nature conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

Limestone quarries as refuges for European xerophilous butterflies. Santoul F, Figuerola J, Green AJ. Importance of gravel pits for the conservation of waterbirds in the Garonne river floodplain (southwest France). Introducing an ecosystem services approach to quarry restoration. Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University; 2013. Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Green RE, et Asparaginase (Elspar)- FDA.

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