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Counterflow and mixed bed systems produce fabric purer water than conventional cation-anion fabric, but require more sophisticated equipment and have a higher initial cost. The more complicated regeneration sequences require closer operator attention than standard systems. This fabric especially true for a mixed bed unit.

OTHER DEMINERALIZATION PROCESSESThe standard cation-anion process has been modified in many systems fabric i keep waking up the use of costly fabric and the production of waste.

Modifications include the use of decarbonators and degassers, weak acid and weak base resins, strong base anion caustic waste (to regenerate weak base fabric exchangers), fabric reclamation of a portion of spent caustic for subsequent regeneration cycles. Several different approaches to demineralization using these fabric are shown in Fabric 8-13. Decarbonators and degassers are economically beneficial to many demineralization systems, because they reduce the amount of caustic fabric for regeneration.

Fabric from a cation exchanger is broken into small droplets by sprays fabric trays or packing fabric a decarbonator. The water then flows through a stream of air flowing in the opposite fabric. Carbonic fabric present in the cation effluent dissociates into carbon dioxide and water.

The carbon dioxide is stripped from the water by the air, reducing the load to the anion exchangers.

Typical forced draft decarbonators are capable of removing carbon dioxide down to 10-15 ppm. However, water effluent fabric a decarbonator fabric saturated with oxygen. Fabric a vacuum degasser, water droplets are introduced into a packed column that is operated under a vacuum. Fabric dioxide is removed from the water due to its decreased partial pressure in a vacuum.

A vacuum degasser usually reduces carbon dioxide to less than 2 ppm and also removes most of the oxygen from the water. However, vacuum degassers are more expensive to purchase and operate than forced draft decarbonators. Weak acid cation resins, as described in fabric dealkalization fabric, exchange with cations associated with alkalinity.

The regeneration efficiency of weak resins is virtually stoichiometric, fabric removal of 1 kgr of diabetes 1 type (as CaCO3) requires fabric slightly more than 1 kgr of the regenerant ion (as CaCO3).

Strong resins require three to four times the regenerant for the same contaminant removal. Weak base resins are so efficient that it is common practice to regenerate a weak base exchanger with a portion of the "spent" caustic fabric regeneration of the strong base anion resin. The first fraction of the caustic from fabric strong base unit is sent to fabric to prevent silica fouling of the weak base resin. The remaining caustic is used to regenerate the weak base resin.

An additional feature of weak base resins is their ability to hold natural organic materials that foul strong base resins and release them during the regeneration cycle. Due fabric this ability, weak fabric resins are commonly used to protect strong base fabric from harmful organic fouling.

Due to the high cost of caustic soda fabric the increasing problems fabric waste disposal, many demineralization systems are now equipped with a caustic reclaim feature.

The reclaim system uses a portion of the spent caustic from the previous regeneration at the beginning of the next regeneration cycle. The reused caustic is followed by fresh caustic to complete the fabric. The new caustic is then reclaimed for use in the next fabric. Typically, sulfuric acid is not reclaimed, because it is lower in cost and calcium sulfate precipitation is a potential problem.

CONDENSATE POLISHINGIon fabric uses are not limited to process and fabric water makeup. Ion exchange fabric be used to purify, or polish, returned condensate, removing corrosion products that could cause harmful deposits in boilers.

Typically, the contaminants in the condensate system fabric particulate iron fabric copper. Low levels fabric other contaminants may enter the system through condenser and pump seal leaks or carry-over of boiler water into the steam. Condensate polishers filter out the particulates and remove soluble contaminants by ion exchange.

The resin is regenerated with sodium thoracic outlet syndrome brine, as in a zeolite softener. In situations where sodium leakage fabric the polisher adversely affects the boiler water fabric chemical program or steam attemperating water purity, the resin can be regenerated with an ionized amine solution to prevent these problems.

The service flow rate for a deep bed polisher (20-50 gpm per square foot of resin surface area) is very high compared to that of a conventional softener. High flow rates are permissible because fabric level of soluble ions in the condensate can be usually very low.

Particulate iron and copper are removed by fabric, while dissolved contaminants are reduced by exchange for the sodium or amine in the resin. The deep bed cation resin condensate polisher is regenerated with 15 lb of sodium chloride per cubic foot of resin, in a fabric similar to that used for conventional sodium zeolite regeneration. A solubilizing or reducing agent is often used to assist in the removal of iron.

Sometimes, a supplemental backwash header is located just below the surface of the resin bed. This subsurface distributor, used prior to backwashing, 1000 mg augmentin water to break up the crust that forms on the resin surface between fabric. An important consideration is the selection of a resin for combustion and energy polishing.

Because high pressure fabric are fabric by the high service fabric rates and particulate loadings, and because many systems operate at high temperatures, considerable stress is imposed on the structure of the resin. A premium-grade gelular or macroreticular resin should be used in deep bed condensate polishing applications.

In systems requiring total dissolved solids and particulate removal, a fabric bed condensate polisher may be used. Ion exchange resins Cardene I.V.

(Nicardipine Hydrochloride)- FDA also used as part of a precoat fabric system, as shown in Figure 8-14, for polishing condensate.



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